Identifying Sponges

Key to California Porifera (Page 107)

( From page 106 B) Oxeas > 90 μm.
Sponge branched, branches cylindrical OR compressed into lobes.
Color: White.
Oxeas: Mean length, 160 - 180 μm.
Neopetrosia zumi (Ristau, 1978)
Sponge: Erectly branching, branches to 2.0 cm. wide. These cylindrical or compressed into lobes. Coral-like. Consistency: firm-rigid. Surface: hispid. Oscula: 1.0 - 1.5 mm in diameter, surrounded by vertical spicules.
Color: Alive and Preserved: White.
Spicules: Megascleres: (1) Oxeas: 115 -160-180- 200 um. x 6 - 14 um. Microscleres: (1) Toxas-variable in shape: 50 - 90 um.
Skeleton: Ectosome, a tangential layer, 60 -80 μm thick, with Oxeas and Toxas. Ectosomal membrane supported by spicule bundles. Choanosome with multispicular tracts running toward surface. Single spicules united isodictially, or in confusion between tracts.
Distribution: Central, Southern California.
Depth: Subtidal to 18 m.
Note: This species was originally designated as Toxadocia zumi. This species appears quite different from Toxadocia now placed in Haliclona (Reniera) by de Weerdt, 2002. Recent review places it in Xestospongia.
Sponge encrusting.
Color: olive-beige to grey-brown.
Oxeas: mean length, 120 μm.
Haliclona (?Reniera) sp. (Hartman, 1975)
Sponge: Encrusting to 15 mm thick. Oscula: 2-3 mm across, sometimes on low mounds.
Color: Alive: Orange-beige, grey-brown, deep chrome-yellow.
Spicules: Megascleres: (1)Oxeas: 88 -120- 134 um. x 3.4 - 9.5 um. Microscleres: (1)Toxas: 35 - 96 um.
Skeleton: Paucispicular tracts with horizontal cross-spicules.
Distribution: Central California.
Depth: Intertidal to subtidal.
Note: Was Toxadocia. The genus Toxadocia was placed in Haliclona (Reniera) by DeWeerdt, but a current ongoing review is now underway assessing the possibility that this species may be Xestospongia.
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