Identifying Sponges

Key to California Porifera (Page 127)

( From page 126 A) Megascleres include Styles-Tylostyles OR Subtylostyles.
[A]
Tylostyles to 1500 μm.
No Styles.
Oxeas to 920 μm.
NO centrotylote Oxeas.
cc127A.jpg
Desmoxyidae ? Genus sp. A Green & Bakus, 1994
Sponge: Encrusting. Consistency: firm, cartilaginous. Surface: superficially smooth but granular from sand in dermal membrane and acanthoxeas below.
Color: White, ?Alive.
Spicules: Megascleres: (1) Tylostyles: 192 -213- 244 um. x 10 -11- 13 um. (2) Tylostyles: 1000 -1300- 1500 um. x 5 -12- 18 um. (3) Oxeas: 600 -755- 920 um. x 8 -9- 10 um. Microscleres: (1) Acanthoxeas: 104 -121- 148 um. x 5 -7- 10 um.
Skeleton: Ectosome with thick dermal membrane, which includes sand grains but no Acanthoxeas. Choanosome, with densely packed Acanthoxeas. Also contains irregularly spaced tracts of smooth Oxeas and Tylostyles, 3- 6 spicules thick from bottom of sponge to dermal membrane.
Distribution: Santa Maria Basin, Southern California.
Depth: Deep water, 54 - 100 m.
Note: Specimens were thin fragments. Note also that in a recent paper, Van Soest & Hooper, 2005 proposed to rename Desmoxyidae to Heteroxyidae.
[B]
Styles-Tylostyles to > 1500 μm.
Oxeas to > 920 μm.
Centrotylote Oxeas present.
Higginsia sp. Klontz, 1989
Sponge: Thinly encrusting to 5 mm thick. Surface: superficially smooth, may be ridged (these formed by spicule bundles angled to the surface) or rugose.
Color: Alive: Pale buff, tan. Preserved: Drab.
Spicules: Megascleres: (1)Tylostyles: 1163 -1951- 2848- 3357 um. (2) Styles (rarely subtylostyles) heads bent: 897 -1001-1634- 1879 um. (3) Oxeas: 473 -760-868- 1818 um. Microscleres: (1)Centrotylote Oxeas: 36 -52-69- 96 um. (2)Acanthoxeas: 48 -74-82- 109 um.
Skeleton: Ectosome: Dermal membrane, often with sand grains. Covers a dense layer of small Oxeas and Acanthoxeas. Choanosome: Basal membrane with Tylostyle heads embedded, from which arise multispicular style tracts, 160-200 μm thick, reaching to near surface. Long Oxeas form spicule brushes at surface. Small Oxeas and Acanthoxeas scattered in choanosome.
Distribution: Central California.
Depth: Intertidal, one specimen from 379 m.
Note: Similar to H.? higginissima Dickenson,1945, also in thesis of Ristau, 1977. *In one specimen, Styles replaced by Subtylostyles.
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