Identifying Sponges

Key to California Porifera (Page 204)

( From page 201 B) NO Microxeas present. Smallest Oxeas > 350 μm. Asters present.
[A] GO TO PAGE 205
Microscleres Asters ONLY.
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[B]
Microscleres are Asters and Bicurvate Microstrongyles.
Penares cortius de Laubenfels, 1930
Sponge: Encrusting to massive to 4 cm thick. Consistency: tough, leathery. Surface: superficially smooth to minutely punctiform. Oscula: oval, 1-2.5 mm wide.
Color: Alive: Tan, grey-brown, grey, dark-brown.
Spicules: Megascleres: (1)Oxeas: 400 - 1000 um. x 10 - 25 um. (2)Dichotriaenes: Rhabds to 400 um. x 50 um. Clads 310 um. x 50 um. Microscleres: (1)Microstrongyles (with two bends and often faintly centrotylote): 50 - 160 um. (2)Oxyspherasters: 7 - 25 um.
Skeleton: Ectosome: Densely felted mat of Micro-strongyles and clads of Dichotriaenes, 200 μm thick. Choanosome: confused with traces of tracts and Oxyspherasters.
Distribution: Southern to Northern California.
Depth: Intertidal to subtidal.
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