Identifying Sponges

Key to California Porifera (Page 014)

( From page 013 A) Tylostyles one size class with size range in any single specimen of < 180 μm.
Ectosome with upright Tylostyles. These with terminal heads.
Choanosome with scattered Tylostyles.
Color: lavender grey, purple-grey or orange-yellow.
Sponge massive.
Spheciospongia confoederata de Laubenfels, 1930
Sponge: Massive to 14 cm thick. Consistency: Firm, compressible. Surface: superficially smooth. Oscula: to 1 cm.
Color: Alive: Lavender grey, purple grey, or orange yellow..
Spicules: Megascleres: (1) Tylostyles: 200 - 320 um. x 6- 14 um. Uniform size. Spicule range to 120 μm. in any given
Skeleton: Ectosome: up to 2 mm, densely packed with spicules, outer ones points outward. Choanosome: Large canals and woody tracts, to 2 mm diameter, form vague reticulation.
Distribution: Southern and Central California.
Depth: Low intertidal to deep water.
Note: Southern California specimens often with wide, flattened papillae, 2-3 mm. diameter.
Ectosome with scattered Tylostyles. These with both terminal and subterminal heads.
Choanosome with scattered Tylostyles.
Color: bright to pale yellow, dark brown.
Sponge, free-encrusting or boring into calcareous substrates.
Cliona californiana (de Laubenfels, 1932)
Sponge: Massive, encrusting to 6.4 cm. thick or boring into calcareous substrates with oscula and pores penetrating calcareous substrate.
Color: Alive: Brown to bright yellow, dark brown.
Spicules: Megascleres: (1)Tylostyles: 190 -340 um. x 2.0 - 13.6 um. Spicule range to 80 μm in any given specimen.
Skeleton: Ectosome: With scattered Tylostyles. Choanosome: With scattered Tylostyles.
Distribution: Southern to northern California.
Depth: Intertidal to very low intertidal.
Note: Formerly known as Cliona celata californiana.
START 001 002